Nepal is a small landlocked country having an area of 147,516 square kilometre, yet here one can find various types of geographic division, weather conditions which has made this small Himalayan nation renowned for its beauty all over the world. Lowest point is recorded 58meter above sea level to the highest point 8848 meter above sea level – height of Mount Everest.
Climate can be understood as the weather averaged over a long period and the climate of a specific location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. The standard averaging is 30yrs.
The climate of Nepal can be divided into 4 seasons.
- Pre-monsoon Season (March-May)
- Monsoon Season (June-September)
- Post-monsoon Season (October-November)
- Winter Season (December-February)
1.Pre-monsoon (March – May)
Generally warm weather season. Season of Rhododendron- Nepal’s National Flower. The atmospheric condition is dusty and windy. Low land of Nepal, Terai is the hottest part of the country where maximum temperature is in the range 39 oC to 44 oC. The temperature in the hill lies in the range of 32oC to 34oC. The temperature gradually decreases as we go north from south.
2. Monsoon ( June – September)
Season of rain. Monsoon enter from the eastern part of a Nepal in June and within two or three days it covers the whole country. The middle mountain region receives the max amount of precipitation as compared to the Himalayan region. The region beyond the Himalaya on the leeward side therefore gets the least amount of precipitation. The precipitation in this season accounts for almost 80% of the total annual rainfall.
3.Post-monsoon Season ( October – November)
This season gets very little or no precipitation of rain at all. This is the season of fine weather with sunny days.
4.Winter Season ( December – February)
It is the season of cold weather. Northern part of the country gets very cold as compared to the southern part. Precipitation occurs in the higher altitudes in the form of snowfall.
For the study of a climate in Nepal there are meteorological stations in different regions of a country.
High Altitude Meteorological Stations of Nepal for Climate Analysis
Study of an atmosphere that focuses on the weather process and short term forecasting is known as Meteorology.
In Nepal there are many Meteorological Stations. Some of the main meteorological stations at high altitudes of himalayas are:
It is located in a Dolpa district in the far-western part of a country. Located at latitude 29degree07’ north to longitude 83degree36’east within an altitude of 2735meter above sea level.
2. Annapurna (Machhapuchhre B.C)
It is located in a Kaski district in the western part of a country. Situated at latitude 28degree13’ north to longitude 83degree57’ east within an altitude of 3470meter above sea level.
3. Langtang (Kyangjing)
It is located in a Rasuwa district in the central part of a country. Situated at latitude 28degree13’ north to longitude 85degree37’ east within an altitude of 3920m above sea level.
4. Khumbu (Dingboche)
It is located in a Solukhumbu district in the eastern part of Nepal. Situated at latitude 27degree53’ north to longitude 86degree 50’ east within an altitude of 4355meter above sea level.
It is located in a Sankhuwasabha district in the eastern part of Nepal. Situated at latitude 27degree40’ north to longitude 87degree13’ within an altitude of 3980 meter above sea level.
Meteorological stations are crucial for the study an atmospheric conditions and as it collects several datas on various topic such as
- Air Temperature.
- Relative Humidity.
- Sunshine Duration.
- Solar Radiation.
- Wind Speed.
- Wind Direction.
- Snow Depth.
- Cloud amount (manual).
- Snow Albedo.
As these parameters provides decisive datas which will be used to understand and predicate the weather condition of Nepal.